Обзор литературы посвящен часто встречающемуся повреждению шейного отдела позвоночника – хлыстовой
травме. Выделены и систематизированы современные данные по истории, механизму, диагностике, лечению, прогнозу хлыстовой травмы и заболеваний, связанных с ней.
Abbassian A, Giddins GE. Subacromial impingement
in patients with whiplash injury to the cervical
spine. J Orthop Surg Res. 2008; 3: 25.
Abel MS. Roentgenographic aspects of post-traumatic
arthritis, instability and disk deterioration following
occult fractures of the cervical spine. Clin Orthop.
1962; 24: 49–60.
Abel MS. Moderately severe whiplash injuries of the
cervical spine and their radiological diagnosis. Clin
Orthop. 1958; 12: 189–208.
Association of British Insurers. Tackling Whiplash, Prevention,
Care, Compensation. 2008: 1–15.
Balla JI. The late whiplash syndrome. Aust N Z J Surg.
1980; 50: 610–614.
Balla JI. The late whiplash syndrome: a study of an
illness in Australia and Singapore. Cult Med Psychiatry.
1982; 6: 191–210.
Bannister G, Amirfeyz R, Kelley S, et al. Whiplash
injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009; 91: 845–850.
Bannister GC, Gargan MF. Prognosis of whiplash
injuries: a review of the literature. In: Teasel RW, Shapiro
AP (eds.). Cervical Flexion-Extension Whiplash Injuries.
Spine: State of the Art Reviews. 1993; 7: 557–569.
Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N. Whiplash injury.
Pain. 1994; 58: 283–307.
Boden SD, McCowin PR, Davis DO, et al. Abnormal
magnetic-resonance scans of the cervical spine in
asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990; 72: 1178–1184.
Bogduk N, Windsor M, Inglis A. The innervation of
the cervical intervertebral discs. Spine. 1988; 13: 2–8.
Borchgrevink G, Smevik O, Haave I, et al. MRI of
cerebrum and cervical columna within two days after
whiplash neck sprain injury. Injury. 1997; 28: 331–335.
Bourbeau R, Desjardins D, Maag U, et al. Neck
injuries among belted and unbelted occupants of the
front seat of cars. J Trauma. 1993; 35: 794–799.
Braaf MM, Rosner S. Whiplash injury of the neck.
Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
N Y State J Med. 1958; 58: 1501–1507.
Buckwalter JA. Aging and degeneration of the
human intervertebral disc. Spine. 1995; 20: 1307–1314.
Carette S. Whiplash injury and chronic neck pain.
N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1083–1084.
Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Cote P, et al. Effect of
eliminating compensation for pain and suffering on
the outcome of insurance claims for whiplash injury.
N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1179–1186.
Chauhan SK, Peckham T, Turner R. Impingement
syndrome associated with whiplash injury. J Bone
Joint Surg Br. 2003; 85: 408–410.
Chen C, Lu Y, Cavanaugh JM, et al. Recording of
neural activity from goat cervical facet joint capsule
using custom-designed miniature electrodes. Spine.
2005; 30: 1367–1372.
Clemens HJ, Burow K. Experimental investigation
on injury mechanisms of cervical spine at frontal and
rear-front vehicle impacts. In: 16th STAPP Car Crash
Conference Proceedings. Society of automotive engineers,
N Y, 1972; 76–104.
Compton C. The use of public crash data in biomechanical
research. In: Nahum A, Melvin J (eds.). Accidental
Injury Biomechanics and Prevention. N Y, 1993: 49–66.
Coppes MH, Marani E, Thomeer RT, et al. Innervation
of «painful» lumbar discs. Spine. 1997; 22:
Cote P, Cassidy JD, Carroll L, et al. A systematic
review of the prognosis of acute whiplash and a new
conceptual framework to synthesize the literature.
Spine. 2001; 26:E445–E458.
Cote P, Hogg-Johnson S, Cassidy JD, et al. Initial
patterns of clinical care and recovery from whiplash
injuries: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern
Med. 2005; 165: 2257–2263.
Cusick JF, Pintar FA, Yoganandan N. Whiplash
syndrome: kinematic factors influencing pain patterns.
Spine. 2001; 26: 1252–1258.
Davis AG. Injuries of the cervical spine. JAMA.1945;
Deans GT, Magalliard JN, Kerr M, et al. Neck
sprain – a major cause of disability following car accidents.
Injury. 1987; 18: 10–12.
Deans GT, McGalliard JN, Rutherford WH. Incidence
and duration of neck pain among patients
injured in car accidents. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;
Dehner C, Elbel M, Schick S, et al. Risk of injury
of the cervical spine in sled tests in female volunteers.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2007; 22: 615–622.
Eck JC, Hodges SD, Humphreys SC. Whiplash:
a review of a commonly misunderstood injury. Am
J Med. 2001; 110: 651–656.
Ettlin TM, Kischka U, Reichmann S, et al. Cerebral
symptoms after whiplash injury of the neck:
a prospective clinical and neuropsychological study
of whiplash injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry.
1992; 55: 943–948.
Evans RW. Some observations on whiplash injuries.
Neurol Clin. 1992; 10: 975–997.
Falla D, Jull G, Dall’Alba P, et al. An electromyographic
analysis of the deep cervical flexor muscles
in performance of craniocervical flexion. Phys Ther.
2003; 83: 899–906.
Falla D, Jull G, Rainoldi A, et al. Neck flexor muscle
fatigue is side specific in patients with unilateral
neck pain. Eur J Pain. 2004; 8: 71–77.
Farbman AA. Neck sprain. Associated factors. JAMA.
1973; 223: 1010–1015.
Ferrari R. The Whiplash Encyclopedia: The Facts and
Myths of Whiplash. Gaithersburg, MD, 1999.
Foo D, Rossier AB, Cocharan TP. Complete sensory
and motor recovery from anterior spinal artery syndrome
after sprain of the cervical spine: a case report.
Eur Neurol. 1984; 23: 119–123.
Foreman SM, Croft AC. Whiplash Injuries: The cervical
acceleration/deceleration syndrome. Baltimore,
Freeman MD, Croft AC, Rossignol AM. A review
and method of logic critique of the literature refuting
whiplash syndrome. Spine. 1999; 124: 86–96.
Fukui SS, Ohseto K, Shiotani M. Referred pain distribution
of the cervical zygapophyseal joints and cervical
dorsal rami. Pain. 1996; 68: 79–83.
Gargan MF, Bannister GC. The rate of recovery following
whiplash injury. Eur Spine J. 1994; 3: 162–164.
Grauer JN, Panjabi MM, Cholewicki J, et al.
Whiplash produces an S-shaped curvature of the neck
with hyperextension at lower levels. Spine. 1997; 22:
Graziano DL, Nitsch W, Huijbregts PA. Positive
cervical artery testing in a patient with chronic whiplash
syndrome: clinical decision-making in the presence
of diagnostic uncertainty. J Man Manip Ther.
Greenfield J, Ilfeld FW. Acute cervical strain. Evaluation
and short term prognostic factors. Clin Orthop
Relat Res. 1977; (122): 196–200.
Growe HE. Injuries to the cervical spine. Paper presented
at the meeting of the Western Orthopaedic
Association, San Francisco, 1928.
Hamer AJ, Gargan MF, Bannister GC, et al. Whiplash
injury and surgically treated cervical disc disease.
Injury. 1993; 24: 549–550.
Hartling L, Brison RJ, Ardern C, et al. Prognostic
value of the Quebec Classification of Whiplash-Associated
Disorders. Spine. 2001; 26: 36–41.
Henderson CM, Hennessy RG, Shuey HM, et al.
Posterior-lateral foraminotomy as an exclusive operative
technique for cervical radiculopathy: a review of
846 consecutively operated cases. Neurosurgery. 1983;
Herren-Gerber R, Weiss S, Arendt-Nielsen L,
et al. Modulation of central hypersensitivity by nociceptive
input in chronic pain after whiplash injury.
Pain Med. 2004; 5: 366–376.
Hildingsson C, Toolanen G. Outcome after softtissue
injury of the cervical spine. A prospective study
of 93 car-accident victims. Acta Orthop Scand. 1990;
Hoffman J, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, et al. Validity
of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the
cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl
J Med. 2000; 343: 94–99.
Hohl M. Normal motions in the upper portion of
the cervical spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964; 46:
Hohl M. Soft tissue injures of the neck. Clin Orthop
Relat Res. 1975; (109): 42–49.
Hohl M. Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile
accidents. Factors influencing prognosis. J Bone Joint
Surg Am. 1974; 56: 1675–1682.
Holm S, Indahl A, Solomonow M. Sensorimotor
control of the spine. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2002;
Huddleston OL. Whiplash injuries; diagnosis and
treatment. Calif Med. 1958; 89: 318–321.
Ide M, Ide J, Yamaga M, et al. Symptoms and sings
of irritation of the brachial plexus in whiplash injuries.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001; 83: 226–229.
Ivancic PC, Ito S, Tominaga Y, et al. Whiplash
causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2008; 23: 159–165.
Jackson R. The Cervical Syndrome. Springfield, ILL;
Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956.
Janes JM, Hooshmand H. Severe extension-flexion
injuries of the cervical spine. Mayo Clin Proc. 1965; 40:
Jonsson HJr, Bring G, Rauschning W, et al. Hidden
cervical spine injuries in traffic accident victims
with skull fractures. J Spinal Disord. 1991; 4: 251–263.
Jonsson HJr, Cesarini K, Sahistedt B. Finding and
outcome in whiplash-type neck distortions. Spine.
1994; 19: 2733–2743.
Joslin CC, Khan SN, Bannister GC. Long-term disability
after neck injury. A comparative study. J Bone
Joint Surg Br. 2004; 86: 1032–1034.
Kaapa E, Han X, Holm S, et al. Collagen synthesis
and types I, III, IV, and VI collagens in an animal model
of disc degeneration. Spine. 1995; 20: 59–66.
Kallakuri S, Singh A, Lu Y, et al. Tensile stretching
of cervical facet joint capsule and related axonal
changes. Eur Spine J. 2008; 17: 556–563.
Kamper SJ, Rebbeck TJ, Maher CG. Course and
prognostic factors of whiplash: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Pain. 2008; 138: 617–629.
Kasch H, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Arendt-Nielsen L,
et al. Headache, neck pain, and neck mobility after acute
whiplash injury: a prospective study. Spine. 2001; 26:
Kerry R, Taylor AJ. Cervical arterial dysfunction
assessment and manual therapy. Man Ther. 2006; 11:
Key JA, Conwell HE. The Management of Fractures,
Dislocations and Sprains. St. Louis, 1934.
Kirpalani D, Mitra R. Cervical facet joint dysfunction:
a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89:
Klein GN, Mannion AF, Panjabi MM, et al.
Trapped in the neutral zone: Another symptom of
whiplash-associated disorder? Eur Spine J. 2001; 10:
Kullgren A, Krafft M, Lie A, et al. The effect of
whiplash protection systems in real-life crashes and
their correlation to consumer crash test programmes.
Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on
the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Washington, DC,
Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Percutaneous
radiofrequency neurotomy in the treatment of cervical
zygapophysial joint pain: a caution. Neurosurgery.
1995; 36: 732–739.
Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, et al. Chronic
cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash. A
placebo-controlled prevalence study. Spine. 1996; 21:
Luan F, Yang KH, Deng B, et al. Qualitative
analyses of neck kinematics during low-speed rearend
impact. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000; 15:
MacNab I. Acceleration extension injuries of the cervical
spine. In: Rothman RH, Simone FA (eds.) The
Spine. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, 1982: 647–660.
MacNab I. Acceleration injuries of the cervical spine.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964; 46: 1797–1799.
Maimaris C, Barnes MR, Allen MJ. Whiplash injuries
of the neck: A retrospective study. Injury. 1988; 19:
Malik H, Lovell M. Soft tissue neck symptoms following
high-energy road traffic accidents. Spine. 2004;
Mark BM. Cervicogenic headache differential diagnosis
and clinical management: literature review. Cranio.
1990; 8: 332–338.
Martin D, Schoenen J, Lenelle J, et al. MRI-patalogical
correlations in acute traumatic central cord
syndrome: case report. Neuroradiology. 1992; 34:
Mathewson JM. Dynamics of car crashes. International
Record of Medicine and GP Clinics. 1956: 29–30.
Matsumoto M, Fujimura Y, Suzuki N, et al. Cervical
curvature in acute whiplash injures: prospective
comparative study with asymptomatic subjects. Injury.
1998; 29: 775–778.
McEvoy GK (ed.). American Hospital Formulary
Service – Drug Information 92. Bethesda, MD, 1992:
Moore RJ, Crotti TN, Osti OL, et al. Osteoarthrosis
of the facet joints resulting from anular rim lesions in
sheep lumbar discs. Spine. 1999; 24: 519–525.
Murray PA, Pitcher M, Galasko CSB. The cost of
long term disability from road traffic accidents: four
year study: final report. Berkshire, Transport Research
Laboratory. Project report 45, HMSO, 1993: 1–58.
Nederhand MH, Ijzerman MJ, Hermens HJ, et al.
Cervical muscle dysfunction in the chronic whiplash
associated disorder grade II (WAD-II). Spine. 2000; 25:
Olney DB, Marsden AK. The effect of head restraints
and seat belts on the incidence of neck injury in car
accidents. Injury. 1986; 17: 365–367.
Panjabi MM, Cholewicki J, Nibu K, et al. Simulation
of whiplash trauma using whole cervical spine
specimens. Spine. 1998; 23: 17–24.
Panjabi MM, Ito S, Pearson AM, et al. Injury mechanisms
of the cervical intervertebral disc during simulated
whiplash. Spine. 2004; 29: 1217–1225.
Parmar HV, Raymakers R. Neck injuries from rear
impact road traffic accidents: prognosis in persons
seeking compensation. Injury. 1993; 24: 75–78.
Pennie B, Agambar L. Patterns of injury and recovery
in whiplash. Injury. 1991; 22: 57–59.
Pettersson K, Hildingsson C, Toolanen G, et al.
Disc pathology after whiplash injury. A prospective
magnetic resonance imaging and clinical investigation.
Spine. 1997; 22: 283–287.
Pettersson K, Hildingsson C, Toolanen G, et al.
MRI and neurology in acute whiplash trauma. No correlation
in prospective examination of 39 cases. Acta
Orthop Scand. 1994; 65: 525–528.
Pettersson K, Karrholm J, Toolanen G, et al.
Decreased width of the spinal canal in patients with
chronic symptoms after whiplash injury. Spine. 1995;
Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, De Stefano G,
et al. Relationship between early somatic, radiological,
cognitive and psychosocial findings and outcome
during a one-year follow-up in 117 patients suffering
from common whiplash. Br J Rheumatol. 1994; 33:
Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, Di Stefano G. Longterm
outcome after whiplash injury. A 2-year followup
considering features of injury mechanism and
somatic, radiologic and psychosocial flinging. Medicine
(Baltimore). 1995; 74: 281–297.
Ratliff AH. Whiplash injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Br.
1997; 79: 517–519.
Rodriquez AA, Barr KP, Burns SP. Whiplash:
pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Muscle Nerve. 2004; 29: 768–781.
Ronnen HR, de Korte PJ, Brink PR, et al. Acute
whiplash injury: is there a role for MR imaging? – a prospective
study of 100 patients. Radiology. 1996; 201:
Schellhas K, Smith MD, Gundry C, et al. Cervical
discogenic pain. Prospective correlation of magnetic
resonance imaging and discography in asymptomatic
subjects and pain sufferers. Spine. 1996; 21: 300–312.
Schofferman J, Bogduk N, Slosar P. Chronic whiplash
and whiplash-associated disorders: an evidencebased
approach. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007; 15:
Scholten-Peeters GG, Verhagen AP, Bekkering GE,
et al. Prognostic factors of whiplash-associated disorders:
a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.
Pain. 2003; 104: 303–322.
Severy DM, Mathewson JH, Bechtol CO. Controlled
automobile rearend collisions, an investigation
of related engineering and medical phenomena. Can
Serv Med J. 1955; 11: 727–759.
Spitzer WO, Skovron ML, Salmi LR, et al. Scientific
monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-
Associated Disorders: redefining «whiplash» and its
management. Spine. 1995; 20: 1S–73S.
Stemper BD, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA. Effects of
abnormal posture on capsular ligament elongations in
a computational model subjected to whiplash loading.
J Biomech. 2005; 38: 1313–1323.
Sterling M, Jull G, Kenardy J. Physical and psychological
factors maintain long-term predictive capacity
post-whiplash injury. Pain. 2006; 122: 102–108.
Sterner Y, Toolanen G, Gerdie B, et al. The incidence
of whiplash trauma and the effects of different
factors on recovery. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2003; 16:
Suissa S. Risk factors of poor prognosis after whiplash
injury. Pain Res Manag. 2003; 8: 69–75.
Tegenthoff M, Malin JP. Das sogenannte Schleudertrauma
der Halswir-beisaule. Anmerkungen aus
neurologischer Sicht. Dtsch Med Wschr. 1991; 116:
Tominaga Y, Ndu AB, Coe MP, et al. Neck ligament
strength is decreased following whiplash trauma. BMC
Musculoskelet Disord. 2006; 7: 103.
Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N. Standing balance
in persistent whiplash a comparison between subjects
with and without dizziness. J Rehabil Med. 2005; 37:
Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N. The relationship of
cervical joint position error to balance and eye movement
disturbances in persistent whiplash. Man Ther.
2006; 11: 99–106.
Twomey LT, Taylor JR. The whiplash syndrome:
pathology and physical treatment. J Man Manip Ther.
1993; 1: 26–29.
Uhrenholt L, Grunnet-Nilsson N, Hartvigsen J.
Cervical spine lesions after road traffic accidents: a systematic
review. Spine. 2002; 27: 1934–1941.
Van Geothem JW, Biltjes IG, van den Hauwe L,
et al. Whiplash injuries: is there a role for imaging?
Eur J Radiol. 1996; 22: 30–37.
Verhagen AP, Scholten-Peeters GG, de Bie RA,
et al. Conservative treatments for whiplash. Cochrane
Database Syst Rev. 2004; (1):CD003338.
Versteegen GJ, Kingma J, Meijler WJ, et al. Neck
sprain in patients injured in car accidents: a retrospective
study covering the period 1970-1994. Eur Spine J.
1998; 7: 195–200.
Watkinson A, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. Prognostic
factors in soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine.
Injury. 1991; 22: 307–309.
Watson-Jones R. Fractures and other bone and joint
injuries. Baltimore, 1940; 723.
White K, Hudgins TH, Alleva JT. Cervical facet
mediated pain. Dis Mon. 2009; 55: 729–736.
Winkelstein BA, Nightingale RW, Richardson W,
et al. The cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash
injury: a biomechanical investigation. Spine. 2000;