На главную страницу журнала Хирургия позвоночника ISSN 2313-1497 (Online версия),
ISSN 1810-8997 (печатная версия)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14531/ss1810-8997
Архив номеров

Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)
Архив научных журналов Central and Eastern European Online Library Архив научных журналов
CrossRef DOI

Российская Ассоциация Хирургов-вертебрологов

Ардашев И.П., Ардашева Е.И., Гришанов А.А., Веретельникова И.Ю., Шпаковский М.С., Петрова О.И.
заказать статью

Обзор литературы посвящен часто встречающемуся повреждению шейного отдела позвоночника – хлыстовой травме. Выделены и систематизированы современные данные по истории, механизму, диагностике, лечению, прогнозу хлыстовой травмы и заболеваний, связанных с ней.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14531/ss2012.3.17-25

  1. Abbassian A, Giddins GE. Subacromial impingement in patients with whiplash injury to the cervical spine. J Orthop Surg Res. 2008; 3: 25.
  2. Abel MS. Roentgenographic aspects of post-traumatic arthritis, instability and disk deterioration following occult fractures of the cervical spine. Clin Orthop. 1962; 24: 49–60.
  3. Abel MS. Moderately severe whiplash injuries of the cervical spine and their radiological diagnosis. Clin Orthop. 1958; 12: 189–208.
  4. Association of British Insurers. Tackling Whiplash, Prevention, Care, Compensation. 2008: 1–15.
  5. Balla JI. The late whiplash syndrome. Aust N Z J Surg. 1980; 50: 610–614.
  6. Balla JI. The late whiplash syndrome: a study of an illness in Australia and Singapore. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1982; 6: 191–210.
  7. Bannister G, Amirfeyz R, Kelley S, et al. Whiplash injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009; 91: 845–850.
  8. Bannister GC, Gargan MF. Prognosis of whiplash injuries: a review of the literature. In: Teasel RW, Shapiro AP (eds.). Cervical Flexion-Extension Whiplash Injuries. Spine: State of the Art Reviews. 1993; 7: 557–569.
  9. Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N. Whiplash injury. Pain. 1994; 58: 283–307.
  10. Boden SD, McCowin PR, Davis DO, et al. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the cervical spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990; 72: 1178–1184.
  11. Bogduk N, Windsor M, Inglis A. The innervation of the cervical intervertebral discs. Spine. 1988; 13: 2–8.
  12. Borchgrevink G, Smevik O, Haave I, et al. MRI of cerebrum and cervical columna within two days after whiplash neck sprain injury. Injury. 1997; 28: 331–335.
  13. Bourbeau R, Desjardins D, Maag U, et al. Neck injuries among belted and unbelted occupants of the front seat of cars. J Trauma. 1993; 35: 794–799.
  14. Braaf MM, Rosner S. Whiplash injury of the neck. Symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. N Y State J Med. 1958; 58: 1501–1507.
  15. Buckwalter JA. Aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. Spine. 1995; 20: 1307–1314.
  16. Carette S. Whiplash injury and chronic neck pain. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1083–1084.
  17. Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Cote P, et al. Effect of eliminating compensation for pain and suffering on the outcome of insurance claims for whiplash injury. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1179–1186.
  18. Chauhan SK, Peckham T, Turner R. Impingement syndrome associated with whiplash injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003; 85: 408–410.
  19. Chen C, Lu Y, Cavanaugh JM, et al. Recording of neural activity from goat cervical facet joint capsule using custom-designed miniature electrodes. Spine. 2005; 30: 1367–1372.
  20. Clemens HJ, Burow K. Experimental investigation on injury mechanisms of cervical spine at frontal and rear-front vehicle impacts. In: 16th STAPP Car Crash Conference Proceedings. Society of automotive engineers, N Y, 1972; 76–104.
  21. Compton C. The use of public crash data in biomechanical research. In: Nahum A, Melvin J (eds.). Accidental Injury Biomechanics and Prevention. N Y, 1993: 49–66.
  22. Coppes MH, Marani E, Thomeer RT, et al. Innervation of «painful» lumbar discs. Spine. 1997; 22: 2342–2349.
  23. Cote P, Cassidy JD, Carroll L, et al. A systematic review of the prognosis of acute whiplash and a new conceptual framework to synthesize the literature. Spine. 2001; 26:E445–E458.
  24. Cote P, Hogg-Johnson S, Cassidy JD, et al. Initial patterns of clinical care and recovery from whiplash injuries: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165: 2257–2263.
  25. Cusick JF, Pintar FA, Yoganandan N. Whiplash syndrome: kinematic factors influencing pain patterns. Spine. 2001; 26: 1252–1258.
  26. Davis AG. Injuries of the cervical spine. JAMA.1945; 127: 149–156.
  27. Deans GT, Magalliard JN, Kerr M, et al. Neck sprain – a major cause of disability following car accidents. Injury. 1987; 18: 10–12.
  28. Deans GT, McGalliard JN, Rutherford WH. Incidence and duration of neck pain among patients injured in car accidents. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986; 292: 94–95.
  29. Dehner C, Elbel M, Schick S, et al. Risk of injury of the cervical spine in sled tests in female volunteers. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2007; 22: 615–622.
  30. Eck JC, Hodges SD, Humphreys SC. Whiplash: a review of a commonly misunderstood injury. Am J Med. 2001; 110: 651–656.
  31. Ettlin TM, Kischka U, Reichmann S, et al. Cerebral symptoms after whiplash injury of the neck: a prospective clinical and neuropsychological study of whiplash injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1992; 55: 943–948.
  32. Evans RW. Some observations on whiplash injuries. Neurol Clin. 1992; 10: 975–997.
  33. Falla D, Jull G, Dall’Alba P, et al. An electromyographic analysis of the deep cervical flexor muscles in performance of craniocervical flexion. Phys Ther. 2003; 83: 899–906.
  34. Falla D, Jull G, Rainoldi A, et al. Neck flexor muscle fatigue is side specific in patients with unilateral neck pain. Eur J Pain. 2004; 8: 71–77.
  35. Farbman AA. Neck sprain. Associated factors. JAMA. 1973; 223: 1010–1015.
  36. Ferrari R. The Whiplash Encyclopedia: The Facts and Myths of Whiplash. Gaithersburg, MD, 1999.
  37. Foo D, Rossier AB, Cocharan TP. Complete sensory and motor recovery from anterior spinal artery syndrome after sprain of the cervical spine: a case report. Eur Neurol. 1984; 23: 119–123.
  38. Foreman SM, Croft AC. Whiplash Injuries: The cervical acceleration/deceleration syndrome. Baltimore, 1988.
  39. Freeman MD, Croft AC, Rossignol AM. A review and method of logic critique of the literature refuting whiplash syndrome. Spine. 1999; 124: 86–96.
  40. Fukui SS, Ohseto K, Shiotani M. Referred pain distribution of the cervical zygapophyseal joints and cervical dorsal rami. Pain. 1996; 68: 79–83.
  41. Gargan MF, Bannister GC. The rate of recovery following whiplash injury. Eur Spine J. 1994; 3: 162–164.
  42. Grauer JN, Panjabi MM, Cholewicki J, et al. Whiplash produces an S-shaped curvature of the neck with hyperextension at lower levels. Spine. 1997; 22: 2489–2494.
  43. Graziano DL, Nitsch W, Huijbregts PA. Positive cervical artery testing in a patient with chronic whiplash syndrome: clinical decision-making in the presence of diagnostic uncertainty. J Man Manip Ther. 2007; 15:E45–E63.
  44. Greenfield J, Ilfeld FW. Acute cervical strain. Evaluation and short term prognostic factors. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1977; (122): 196–200.
  45. Growe HE. Injuries to the cervical spine. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western Orthopaedic Association, San Francisco, 1928.
  46. Hamer AJ, Gargan MF, Bannister GC, et al. Whiplash injury and surgically treated cervical disc disease. Injury. 1993; 24: 549–550.
  47. Hartling L, Brison RJ, Ardern C, et al. Prognostic value of the Quebec Classification of Whiplash-Associated Disorders. Spine. 2001; 26: 36–41.
  48. Henderson CM, Hennessy RG, Shuey HM, et al. Posterior-lateral foraminotomy as an exclusive operative technique for cervical radiculopathy: a review of 846 consecutively operated cases. Neurosurgery. 1983; 13: 504–572.
  49. Herren-Gerber R, Weiss S, Arendt-Nielsen L, et al. Modulation of central hypersensitivity by nociceptive input in chronic pain after whiplash injury. Pain Med. 2004; 5: 366–376.
  50. Hildingsson C, Toolanen G. Outcome after softtissue injury of the cervical spine. A prospective study of 93 car-accident victims. Acta Orthop Scand. 1990; 61: 357–359.
  51. Hoffman J, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, et al. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 94–99.
  52. Hohl M. Normal motions in the upper portion of the cervical spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964; 46: 1777–1779.
  53. Hohl M. Soft tissue injures of the neck. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1975; (109): 42–49.
  54. Hohl M. Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile accidents. Factors influencing prognosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1974; 56: 1675–1682.
  55. Holm S, Indahl A, Solomonow M. Sensorimotor control of the spine. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2002; 12: 219–234.
  56. Huddleston OL. Whiplash injuries; diagnosis and treatment. Calif Med. 1958; 89: 318–321.
  57. Ide M, Ide J, Yamaga M, et al. Symptoms and sings of irritation of the brachial plexus in whiplash injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001; 83: 226–229.
  58. Ivancic PC, Ito S, Tominaga Y, et al. Whiplash causes increased laxity of cervical capsular ligament. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2008; 23: 159–165.
  59. Jackson R. The Cervical Syndrome. Springfield, ILL; Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956.
  60. Janes JM, Hooshmand H. Severe extension-flexion injuries of the cervical spine. Mayo Clin Proc. 1965; 40: 353–369.
  61. Jonsson HJr, Bring G, Rauschning W, et al. Hidden cervical spine injuries in traffic accident victims with skull fractures. J Spinal Disord. 1991; 4: 251–263.
  62. Jonsson HJr, Cesarini K, Sahistedt B. Finding and outcome in whiplash-type neck distortions. Spine. 1994; 19: 2733–2743.
  63. Joslin CC, Khan SN, Bannister GC. Long-term disability after neck injury. A comparative study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2004; 86: 1032–1034.
  64. Kaapa E, Han X, Holm S, et al. Collagen synthesis and types I, III, IV, and VI collagens in an animal model of disc degeneration. Spine. 1995; 20: 59–66.
  65. Kallakuri S, Singh A, Lu Y, et al. Tensile stretching of cervical facet joint capsule and related axonal changes. Eur Spine J. 2008; 17: 556–563.
  66. Kamper SJ, Rebbeck TJ, Maher CG. Course and prognostic factors of whiplash: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain. 2008; 138: 617–629.
  67. Kasch H, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Arendt-Nielsen L, et al. Headache, neck pain, and neck mobility after acute whiplash injury: a prospective study. Spine. 2001; 26: 1246–1251.
  68. Kerry R, Taylor AJ. Cervical arterial dysfunction assessment and manual therapy. Man Ther. 2006; 11: 243–253.
  69. Key JA, Conwell HE. The Management of Fractures, Dislocations and Sprains. St. Louis, 1934.
  70. Kirpalani D, Mitra R. Cervical facet joint dysfunction: a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89: 770–774.
  71. Klein GN, Mannion AF, Panjabi MM, et al. Trapped in the neutral zone: Another symptom of whiplash-associated disorder? Eur Spine J. 2001; 10: 141–148.
  72. Kullgren A, Krafft M, Lie A, et al. The effect of whiplash protection systems in real-life crashes and their correlation to consumer crash test programmes. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Washington, DC, 2007.
  73. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy in the treatment of cervical zygapophysial joint pain: a caution. Neurosurgery. 1995; 36: 732–739.
  74. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, et al. Chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash. A placebo-controlled prevalence study. Spine. 1996; 21: 1737–1745.
  75. Luan F, Yang KH, Deng B, et al. Qualitative analyses of neck kinematics during low-speed rearend impact. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2000; 15: 649–657.
  76. MacNab I. Acceleration extension injuries of the cervical spine. In: Rothman RH, Simone FA (eds.) The Spine. Vol. 2. Philadelphia, 1982: 647–660.
  77. MacNab I. Acceleration injuries of the cervical spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964; 46: 1797–1799.
  78. Maimaris C, Barnes MR, Allen MJ. Whiplash injuries of the neck: A retrospective study. Injury. 1988; 19: 393–396.
  79. Malik H, Lovell M. Soft tissue neck symptoms following high-energy road traffic accidents. Spine. 2004; 29:E315–317.
  80. Mark BM. Cervicogenic headache differential diagnosis and clinical management: literature review. Cranio. 1990; 8: 332–338.
  81. Martin D, Schoenen J, Lenelle J, et al. MRI-patalogical correlations in acute traumatic central cord syndrome: case report. Neuroradiology. 1992; 34: 262–266.
  82. Mathewson JM. Dynamics of car crashes. International Record of Medicine and GP Clinics. 1956: 29–30.
  83. Matsumoto M, Fujimura Y, Suzuki N, et al. Cervical curvature in acute whiplash injures: prospective comparative study with asymptomatic subjects. Injury. 1998; 29: 775–778.
  84. McEvoy GK (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service – Drug Information 92. Bethesda, MD, 1992: 1830–1832.
  85. Moore RJ, Crotti TN, Osti OL, et al. Osteoarthrosis of the facet joints resulting from anular rim lesions in sheep lumbar discs. Spine. 1999; 24: 519–525.
  86. Murray PA, Pitcher M, Galasko CSB. The cost of long term disability from road traffic accidents: four year study: final report. Berkshire, Transport Research Laboratory. Project report 45, HMSO, 1993: 1–58.
  87. Nederhand MH, Ijzerman MJ, Hermens HJ, et al. Cervical muscle dysfunction in the chronic whiplash associated disorder grade II (WAD-II). Spine. 2000; 25: 1938–1943.
  88. Olney DB, Marsden AK. The effect of head restraints and seat belts on the incidence of neck injury in car accidents. Injury. 1986; 17: 365–367.
  89. Panjabi MM, Cholewicki J, Nibu K, et al. Simulation of whiplash trauma using whole cervical spine specimens. Spine. 1998; 23: 17–24.
  90. Panjabi MM, Ito S, Pearson AM, et al. Injury mechanisms of the cervical intervertebral disc during simulated whiplash. Spine. 2004; 29: 1217–1225.
  91. Parmar HV, Raymakers R. Neck injuries from rear impact road traffic accidents: prognosis in persons seeking compensation. Injury. 1993; 24: 75–78.
  92. Pennie B, Agambar L. Patterns of injury and recovery in whiplash. Injury. 1991; 22: 57–59.
  93. Pettersson K, Hildingsson C, Toolanen G, et al. Disc pathology after whiplash injury. A prospective magnetic resonance imaging and clinical investigation. Spine. 1997; 22: 283–287.
  94. Pettersson K, Hildingsson C, Toolanen G, et al. MRI and neurology in acute whiplash trauma. No correlation in prospective examination of 39 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1994; 65: 525–528.
  95. Pettersson K, Karrholm J, Toolanen G, et al. Decreased width of the spinal canal in patients with chronic symptoms after whiplash injury. Spine. 1995; 20: 1664–1667.
  96. Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, De Stefano G, et al. Relationship between early somatic, radiological, cognitive and psychosocial findings and outcome during a one-year follow-up in 117 patients suffering from common whiplash. Br J Rheumatol. 1994; 33: 442–448.
  97. Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, Di Stefano G. Longterm outcome after whiplash injury. A 2-year followup considering features of injury mechanism and somatic, radiologic and psychosocial flinging. Medicine (Baltimore). 1995; 74: 281–297.
  98. Ratliff AH. Whiplash injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997; 79: 517–519.
  99. Rodriquez AA, Barr KP, Burns SP. Whiplash: pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 29: 768–781.
  100. Ronnen HR, de Korte PJ, Brink PR, et al. Acute whiplash injury: is there a role for MR imaging? – a prospective study of 100 patients. Radiology. 1996; 201: 93–96.
  101. Schellhas K, Smith MD, Gundry C, et al. Cervical discogenic pain. Prospective correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and discography in asymptomatic subjects and pain sufferers. Spine. 1996; 21: 300–312.
  102. Schofferman J, Bogduk N, Slosar P. Chronic whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders: an evidencebased approach. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007; 15: 596–606.
  103. Scholten-Peeters GG, Verhagen AP, Bekkering GE, et al. Prognostic factors of whiplash-associated disorders: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Pain. 2003; 104: 303–322.
  104. Severy DM, Mathewson JH, Bechtol CO. Controlled automobile rearend collisions, an investigation of related engineering and medical phenomena. Can Serv Med J. 1955; 11: 727–759.
  105. Spitzer WO, Skovron ML, Salmi LR, et al. Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash- Associated Disorders: redefining «whiplash» and its management. Spine. 1995; 20: 1S–73S.
  106. Stemper BD, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA. Effects of abnormal posture on capsular ligament elongations in a computational model subjected to whiplash loading. J Biomech. 2005; 38: 1313–1323.
  107. Sterling M, Jull G, Kenardy J. Physical and psychological factors maintain long-term predictive capacity post-whiplash injury. Pain. 2006; 122: 102–108.
  108. Sterner Y, Toolanen G, Gerdie B, et al. The incidence of whiplash trauma and the effects of different factors on recovery. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2003; 16: 195–199.
  109. Suissa S. Risk factors of poor prognosis after whiplash injury. Pain Res Manag. 2003; 8: 69–75.
  110. Tegenthoff M, Malin JP. Das sogenannte Schleudertrauma der Halswir-beisaule. Anmerkungen aus neurologischer Sicht. Dtsch Med Wschr. 1991; 116: 1030–1034.
  111. Tominaga Y, Ndu AB, Coe MP, et al. Neck ligament strength is decreased following whiplash trauma. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006; 7: 103.
  112. Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N. Standing balance in persistent whiplash a comparison between subjects with and without dizziness. J Rehabil Med. 2005; 37: 224–229.
  113. Treleaven J, Jull G, LowChoy N. The relationship of cervical joint position error to balance and eye movement disturbances in persistent whiplash. Man Ther. 2006; 11: 99–106.
  114. Twomey LT, Taylor JR. The whiplash syndrome: pathology and physical treatment. J Man Manip Ther. 1993; 1: 26–29.
  115. Uhrenholt L, Grunnet-Nilsson N, Hartvigsen J. Cervical spine lesions after road traffic accidents: a systematic review. Spine. 2002; 27: 1934–1941.
  116. Van Geothem JW, Biltjes IG, van den Hauwe L, et al. Whiplash injuries: is there a role for imaging? Eur J Radiol. 1996; 22: 30–37.
  117. Verhagen AP, Scholten-Peeters GG, de Bie RA, et al. Conservative treatments for whiplash. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; (1):CD003338.
  118. Versteegen GJ, Kingma J, Meijler WJ, et al. Neck sprain in patients injured in car accidents: a retrospective study covering the period 1970-1994. Eur Spine J. 1998; 7: 195–200.
  119. Watkinson A, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. Prognostic factors in soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine. Injury. 1991; 22: 307–309.
  120. Watson-Jones R. Fractures and other bone and joint injuries. Baltimore, 1940; 723.
  121. White K, Hudgins TH, Alleva JT. Cervical facet mediated pain. Dis Mon. 2009; 55: 729–736.
  122. Winkelstein BA, Nightingale RW, Richardson W, et al. The cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury: a biomechanical investigation. Spine. 2000; 25: 1238–1246.
Ключевые слова: хлыстовые повреждения, лечение травм шейного отдела позвоночника, цигапофизиальный болевой синдром

Ардашев И.П.
д-р мед. наук, проф.
зав. кафедрой травматологии, ортопедии и ВПХ
650029, Кемерово, ул. Ворошилова, 22а,
Кемеровская государственная медицинская академия

Ардашева Е.И.
канд. мед. наук
ассистент кафедры травматологии, ортопедии и ВПХ
Кемеровская государственная медицинская академия

Гришанов А.А.
Кемеровская государственная медицинская академия
Кемерово, Россия

Веретельникова И.Ю.
клинический ординатор
Кемеровская государственная медицинская академия
Кемерово, Россия

Шпаковский М.С.
клинический ординатор
Кемеровская государственная медицинская академия
Кемерово, Россия

Петрова О.И.
Клинический консультативно-диагностический центр
Кемерово, Россия