ETHICS OF SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS
1. Editorial Board Responsibilities
Editorial Board of the Spine Surgery Journal follows the ethical standards adopted by the international scientific community. In its activity the Editorial Board relies upon the declaration of the Association of Scientific Editors and Publishers "Ethical Principles of Scientific Publications" (http://rasep.ru/sovet-po-etike/deklaratsiya), Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (https://publicationethics.org/resources/code-conduct), WAME Professional Code of Conduct (http://www.wame.org/wame-professionalism-code-of-conduct), Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement (Elsevier), Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/).
Editorial decision making
The editorial board decides on publication in accordance with the current legislation in the field of copyright. The decision to publish an article is taken solely on the basis of its scientific significance, originality, correspondence of the topic of research to the subject area of the journal.
The editorial staff is responsible for disclosing any information about the received manuscript to outside persons who are not among the authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, and publishers.
Conflict of interest
Unpublished materials can not be used by the editorial staff without the written consent of the authors.
2. Responsibilities of editors
The editor of a scientific journal is responsible for making a decision to publish an article. The decision about publication is based on the scientific significance of the work in question. Intellectual content of manuscripts is assessed regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, origin, citizenship or political preferences of authors. The editor can discuss with other editors and reviewers the decision to publish.
The editor and the editorial board of the journal do not disclose information about the accepted manuscript to unauthorized persons, except for authors, reviewers, and scientific advisers.
Unpublished manuscripts can not be used in personal research without the written consent of the author.
Editors are considering the question of rejecting a manuscript in the following cases:
1) the article is plagiarism;
2) there is evidence of inaccuracy of the submitted information;
3) the article was previously published in another journal (there are no references to this publication and justification of the need for re-publication);
4) the article presents studies unacceptable from the point of view of ethics.
Articles may be revoked by their author(s) or by the editor of the journal. If editors have conclusive evidence of the need to revoke the article, they must withdraw the publication immediately. If the alleged misconduct relating to potential rejection results in disciplinary hearings or internal investigations in the institution where the study was conducted, it is necessary to await their results before the rejection.
3. Responsibilities of reviewers
Influence on the decision of the editorial board
Review helps the editor to make a decision to publish and through appropriate communication with the authors to help the authors improve their quality of work. The publisher shares the view that all scientists who want to contribute to the publication are required to carry out substantial work on the review of the manuscript.
The reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript, or who does not have enough time for quick work, must notify the editor and ask to be excluded from the review process.
The manuscript received for review is considered as a confidential document that can not be discussed with persons unauthorized by the editor.
Requirements for manuscripts and objectivity
Review should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inadmissible. The opinion of the reviewer should be stated in clear form and supported by recommendations for improving the article.
Acknowledgement of sources
Reviewer should identify the cases when relevant published works are not cited in the text of the manuscript or not listed in the references. He must also indicate whether all statements, conclusions and ideas borrowed from other publications are provided with appropriate bibliographic references. In case a manuscript submitted to review is found to coincide with any other known to the reviewer published material, he(she) must notify the editorial office thereof.
Disclosure policy and conflict of interest
Non-disclosable information and ideas received by the reviewer during the review of a manuscript should be considered confidential and can not be used for personal purposes without the written consent of the author. Experts can not review manuscripts in case of the conflict of interest resulting from competitive, collegial or any other links with the authors of the manuscript, as well as companies or institutions related to the manuscript.
4. Responsibilities of authors
Requirements for manuscripts
If a manuscript is based on original research, the authors must provide reliable results of the work done and an objective discussion of the study significance. The manuscript should contain all key data, an exact description of the study details and links for possible reproduction. Falsification of data or knowingly incorrect statements in the manuscript are considered unethical and are unacceptable. Reviews and scientific articles should be accurate and objective, the point of view of authors should be clearly stated.
Data access and storage
In addition to the manuscript, the editors may request initial data from the authors. The author should be ready to provide an access to them, assuming that open access does not violate the confidentiality of the experiment participants and the rights of a person or company that owns the data.
Originality and Plagiarism
Authors are obliged to submit only original works to the editorial office. Plagiarism (representing someone else's work as an author's work, copying or paraphrasing essential parts of someone else's work without attribution, or claiming one's own rights to the results of someone else's research) is unacceptable.
Multiplicity, redundancy and simultaneity of publications
Submitting of the same manuscript simultaneously in more than one journal is perceived as unethical behavior and is unacceptable. Materials that have already been published can not be submit to the journal for publication. Besides, the materials under consideration in the editorial office of the journal can not be submitted to another journal for publication as an original article. When submitting an article, the author should inform the editor about all previous submissions of the work, which can be considered as duplicating or double publication. The author must warn the editorial office if the manuscript contains information published by the author in previous reports or submitted for another publication. In such cases, the new article should contain references to the preceding material.
The publication of a certain type of articles (for example, clinical recommendations, translated articles) in more than one journal is in some cases ethical under certain conditions. Authors and editors of the journals concerned should agree to the secondary publication, which necessarily contains the same data and interpretations as in the originally published work.
The primary reference must be also cited in the secondary publication. For more information on acceptable forms of secondary (repeat) publications, see www.icmje.org.
Acknowledgement of sources
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should refer to publications that are relevant to the performance of the submitted work. Data obtained privately, for example during a conversation, correspondence or discussions with third parties, should not be used or presented without the explicit written permission of the source. Information obtained from confidential sources (assessment of manuscripts or granting) should not be used without the explicit written permission from the authors of the work relating to confidential sources.
Authorship of publication
Authors of the publication can be only those persons who have made a significant contribution to the formation of the idea, concept and design of the study or the interpretation of the presented study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. In cases where the study participants made a significant contribution only in a certain direction in the research project, they should be listed as persons who have made a significant contribution to this study. Participation, consisting in providing funding or selecting material for an article, does not justify inclusion in the composition of the author's group.
The author must make sure that all participants who have made a significant contribution to the study are presented as co-authors, but those who did not participate in the study are not listed as co-authors, that all co-authors saw and approved the final version of the work and agreed to submit it for publication.
Hazards and human and animal subjects
If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly indicate this in the manuscript. If the work involves the participation of animals or humans as research subjects, the authors should make sure that the manuscript states that all stages of the research are in accordance with the legislation and regulatory documents of research organizations and are approved by the relevant committees.
Disclosure policy and conflicts of interest
Before submitting an article to the journal, all authors must sign a statement on the existence of financial or other conflicts of interest that may be regarded as influencing the results of the study or their interpretation. All sources of funding of the study should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest that are necessarily subject to disclosure include employment, counseling, the availability of shareholder property, obtaining fees, providing expert advice, patent application or patent registration, grants and other financial support.
Significant errors in published works
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in a published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the editor of the journal and cooperate with publisher in order to retract the article or correct errors as soon as possible. If the editor or publisher received information from a third part that the publication contains significant errors, the author must retract or correct the article as soon as possible.
5. Responsibilities of the publisher
The publisher must follow principles and procedures that facilitate the implementation of ethical responsibilities by editors, reviewers and authors of the journal in accordance with these requirements. The publisher should be sure that the potential profit from the placement of advertising or the production of reprints has not affected the editors' decisions.
The publisher should support the editors of the journal in reviewing claims to the ethical aspects of published material and helping to interact with other journals and/or publishers. The publisher should promote good practice in conducting research and implement industry-specific standards in order to improve ethical recommendations, procedures for retracting and correcting errors. The publisher must provide, if necessary, appropriate specialized legal support (opinion or advice).