ХЛЫСТОВЫЕ ПОВРЕЖДЕНИЯ ШЕЙНОГО ОТДЕЛА ПОЗВОНОЧНИКА
Об авторахИгорь Петрович Ардашев
Елена Игоревна Ардашева
Анатолий Анатольевич Гришанов
Ирина Юрьевна Веретельникова
Максим Сергеевич Шпаковский
Ольга Игоревна Петрова
1. Abbassian A, Giddins GE. Subacromial impingement in patients with whiplash injury to the cervical spine. J Orthop Surg Res. 2008; 3: 25.
2. Aprill C, Bogduk N. The prevalence of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. A first approximation. Spine. 1992; 17: 744–747.
3. Balla JI. The late whiplash syndrome. Aust N Z J Surg. 1980; 50: 610–614.
4. Bannister G, Amirfeyz R, Kelley S, et al. Whiplash injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009; 91: 845–850.
5. Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N. The pathophysiology of whiplash. In: Teasell RW, Shapiro AP (eds.). Spine State of the Art Reviews. Cervical Flexion – Extension/ Whiplash Injuries. Philadelphia, 1993: 329–353.
6. Barnsley L, Lord S, Bogduk N. Wiplash injury. Pain. 1994; 58: 283–307.
7. Barnsley L, Lord S, Wallis BJ, et al. The prevalence of chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash. Spine. 1995; 20: 20–25.
8. Barry M. Whiplash injuries. Br J Rheumatol. 1992; 31: 579–581.
9. Binder A. The diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific neck pain and whiplash. Eura Medicophys. 2007; 43: 79–89.
10. Binder AI. Neck pain syndromes. BMJ Clinical Evidence. 2006; l6.
11. Bogduk N. International Spinal Injection Society guidelines for the performance of spinal injection procedures: Part 1: Zygapophysial joint blocks. Clin J Pain. 1997; 13: 297–302.
12. Bogduk N. The clinical anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami. Spine. 1982; 7: 319–330.
13. Bogduk N, Windsor M, Inglis A. The innervation of the cervical intervertebral discs. Spine. 1988; 13: 2–8.
14. Bonk AD, Ferrari R, Giebel GD, et al. Prospective, randomized, controlled study of activity versus collar, and the natural history for whiplash injury, in Germany. J Musculoskel Pain. 2000; 8: 123–132.
15. Borchgrevink GE, Kaasa A, McDonagh D, et al. Acute treatment of whiplash neck sprain injuries. A randomized trial of treatment during the first 14 days after a car accident. Spine. 1998; 23: 25–31.
16. Bridwell KH, Anderson PA, Boden SD, et al. What’s new in spine surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011; 93: 1560–1566.
17. Bronfort G, Evans R, Nelson B, et al. A randomized clinical trial of exercise and spinal manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine. 2001; 26: 788–797.
18. Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, et al. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilization for low back pain and neck pain: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Spine J. 2004; 4: 335–356.
19. Bunketorp L, Lindh M, Carlsson J, et al. The perception of pain and pain-related cognition in subacute whiplash-associated disorders: its influence on prolonged disability. Disabil Rehabil. 2006; 28: 271–279.
20. Carroll L, Cassidy JD, Cote P. Frequency, timing and course of depressive symptomatology after whiplash. Spine. 2006; 31: E551–E556.
21. Cassidy JD, Carroll LJ, Cote P, et al. Effect of eliminating compensation for pain and suffering on the outcome of insurance claims for whiplash injury. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342: 1179–1186.
22. Chauhan SK, Peckham T, Turner R. Impingement syndrome associated with whiplash injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003; 85: 408–410.
23. Chen IH, Vasavada A, Panjabi MM. Kinematics of the cervical spine canal: changes with sagittal plane loads. J Spinal Disord. 1994; 7: 93–101.
24. Clemens HJ, Burow K. Experimental investigation on injury mechanisms of cervical spine at frontal and rear-front vehicle impacts. In: 16th STAPP Car Crash Conference Proceedings. Society of automotive engineers, New York, 1972; 76–104.
25. Cote P, Cassidy JD, Carroll L, et al. A systematic review of the prognosis of acute whiplash and a new conceptual framework to synthesize the literature. Spine. 2001; 26: E445–E458.
26. Crawford JR, Khan RJ, Varley GW. Early management and outcome following soft tissue injuries of the neck: a randomized controlled trial. Injury. 2004; 35: 891–895.
27. Deans GT, McGalliard JN, Rutherford WH. Incidence and duration of neck pain among patients injured in car accidents. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986; 292: 94–95.
28. Ducker TB, Zeidman SM. Spinal cord injury. Role of steroid therapy. Spine. 1994; 19: 2281–2287.
29. Dufton JA, Kopec JA, Wong H, et al. Prognostic factors associated with minimal improvement following acute whiplash-associated disorders. Spine. 2006; 31: E759–E765.
30. Eichenberger U, Greher M, Karpal S, et al. Sonographic visualization and ultrasound-guided block of the third occipital nerve: prospective for a new method to diagnose C2–C3 zygapophysial joint pain. Anesthesiology. 2006; 104: 303–308.
31. Evans R, Bronfort G, Nelson B, et al. Two-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation and two types of exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. Spine. 2002; 27: 2383–2389.
32. Evans RW. Some observations on whiplash injuries. Neurol Clin. 1992; 10: 975–997.
33. Farbman AA. Neck sprain. Associated factors. JAMA. 1973; 223: 1010–1015.
34. Ferrari R. The Whiplash Encyclopedia: The Facts and Myths of Whiplash. Gaithersburg, MD, 1999.
35. Foley-Nolan D, Moore K, Codd M, et al. Low energy high frequency pulsed electromagnetic therapy for acute whiplash injuries. A double blind randomised controlled study. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1992; 24: 51–59.
36. Gargan M, Bannister GC. Long-term prognosis of soft-tissue injuries of the neck. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990; 72: 901–903.
37. Gargan MF, Bannister GC. The rate of recovery following whiplash injury. Eur Spine J. 1994; 3: 162–164.
38. Gargan M, Bannister G, Main C, et al. The behavioral response to whiplash injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997; 79: 523–526.
39. Gennis P, Miller L, Gallagher EJ, et al. The effect of soft cervical collars on persistent neck pain in patients with whiplash injury. Acad Emerg Med. 1996; 3: 568–573.
40. Gorski JM, Schwartz LH. Shoulder impingement presenting as neck pain. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003; 85: 635–638.
41. Gozzard C, Bannister G, Langkamer G, et al. Factors affecting employment after whiplash injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001; 83: 506–509.
42. Greher M, Scharbert G, Kamolz LP, et al. Ultrasoundguided lumbar facet nerve block: a sonoanatomic study of a new methodologic approach. Anesthesiology. 2004; 100: 1242–1248.
43. Gross AR, Hoving JL, Haines ТА, et al. Manipulation and mobilisation for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; (1): CD004249.
44. Guez M. Chronic neck pain. An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplashassociated disorders. Acta Orthop Suppl. 2006; 77: 3–33.
45. Gun RT, Osti OL, O’Riordan A, et al. Risk factors for prolonged disability after whiplash injury: a prospective study. Spine. 2005; 30: 386–391.
46. Gurumoorthy D. A study of neck injury arising from motor vehicle accidents and its clinical management. PhD Thesis, Curtin University of Technology, School of Physiotherapy. Perth, Western Australia, 1996.
47. Harder S, Veilleux M, Suissa S. The effect of sociodemographic and crash-reated factors on the prognosis of whiplash. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998; 51: 377–384.
48. Hartling L, Brison RJ, Ardern C, et al. Prognostic value of the Quebec Classification of Whiplash-Associated Disorder. Spine. 2001; 26: 36–41.
49. Hildebrandt J, Argyrakis A. Percutaneous nerve block of the cervical facets: a relatively new method in the treatment of chronic headache and neck pain. Man Med. 1986; 2: 48–52.
50. Hildingsson C, Toolanen G. Outcome after softtissue injury of the cervical spine. A prospective study of 93 car – accident victims. Acta Orthop Scand. 1990; 61: 357–359.
51. Hodgson SP, Grundy M. Whiplash injuries: Their long term prognosis and its relationship to compensation. Neuro Orthop. 1989; 7: 88–99.
52. Hohl M. Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile accidents. Factors influencing prognosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1974; 56: 1675–1682.
53. Holm LW, Carroll LJ, Cassidy JD, et al. Widespread pain following whiplash-associated disorders: incidence, course and risk factors. J Rheumatol. 2007; 34: 193–200.
54. Holmes A, Han ZH, Dang GT, et al. Changes in cervical canal spine volume during in vitro flexionextension. Spine.1996; 21: 1313–1319.
55. Hove B, Gyldensted C. Cervical analgesic facet joint arthrography. Neuroradiology. 1990; 32: 456–459.
56. Huddleston OL. Whiplash injuries; diagnosis and treatment. Calif Med. 1958; 89: 318–321.
57. Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Harber P, et al. A randomized trial of chiropractic manipulation and mobilization for patients with neck pain: clinical outcomes from the UCLA neck-pain study. Am J Public Health. 2002; 92: 1634–1641.
58. Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Vassilaki M, et al. Adverse reactions to chiropractic treatment and their effects on satisfaction and clinical outcomes among patients enrolled in the UCLA Neck Pain Study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004; 27: 16–25.
59. Ide M, Ide J, Yamaga M, et al. Symptoms and sings of irritation of the brachial plexus in whiplash injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001; 83: 226–229.
60. Ito S, Panjabi MM, Ivancic PC, et al. Spinal canal narrowing during simulated whiplash. Spine. 2004; 29: 1330–1339.
61. Janes JM, Hooshmand H. Severe extension-flexion injuries of the cervical spine. Mayo Clin Proc. 1965; 40: 353–369.
62. Jonsson HJr, Bring G, Rauschning W, et al. Hidden cervical spine injuries in traffic accident victims with skull fractures. J Spinal Disord. 1991; 4: 251–263.
63. Jordan A, Bendix T, Nielsen H, et al. Intensive training, physiotherapy, or manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Spine. 1998; 23: 311–319.
64. Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, et al. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for neck and shoulder pain among working age adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; (2): CD002194.
65. Katoh S, Ikata T, Hirai N, et al. Influence of minor trauma to the neck on the neurological outcome in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine. Paraplegia. 1995; 33: 330–333.
66. Kay TM, Gross A, Goldsmith C, et al. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; (3): CD004250.
67. Khan S, Bannister G, Gargan M, et al. Prognosis following a second whiplash injury. Injury. 2000; 31: 249–251.
68. Kivioja J, Jensen I, Lindgren U. Neither the WADclassification nor the Quebec Task Force follow-up regimen seems to be important for the outcome after a whiplash injury. A prospective study on 186 consecutive patients. Eur Spine J. 2008; 17: 930–935.
69. Kivioja J, Sjalin M, Lindgren U. Psychiatric morbidity in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Spine. 2004; 29: 1235–1239.
70. Klein GN, Mannion AF, Panjabi MM, et al. Trapped in the neutral zone: another symptom of whiplash-associated disorder? Eur Spine J. 2001;10: 141–148.
71. Koes BW, Bouter LM, van Mameren H, et al. Randomised clinical trial of manipulative therapy and physiotherapy for persistent back and neck complaints: results of one year follow up. BMJ. 1992; 304: 601–605.
72. Kongsted A, Qerama E, Kasch H, et al. Neck collar, «act-as-usual» or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial. Spine. 2007; 32: 618–626.
73. Koyanagi I, Iwasaki Y, Hida K, et al. Acute cervical cord injury without fracture or dislocation of the spinal column. J Neurosurg. 2000; 93(1 Suppl): 15–20.
74. Krusen EM, Krusen UL. Cervical syndrome, especially the tension neck problem: clinical study of 800 cases. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1955; 36: 518–523.
75. Kullgren A, Krafft M, Lie A, et al. The effect of whiplash protection systems in real-life crashes and their correlation to consumer crash test programmes. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Washington, DC, 2007.
76. Lankester BJ, Garneti N, Gargan MF, et al. Factors predicting outcome after whiplash injury in subjects pursuing litigation. Eur Spine J. 2006; 15: 902–907.
77. Lee J, Giles K, Drummond PD. Psychological disturbances and an exaggerated response to pain in patients with whiplash injury. J Psychosom Res. 1993; 37: 105–110.
78. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Bogduk N. Percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy in the treatment of cervical zygapophysial joint pain: a caution. Neurosurgery. 1995; 36: 732–739.
79. Lord SM, Barnsley L, Wallis BJ, et al. Chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash. A placebocontrolled prevalence study. Spine. 1996; 21: 1737–1745.
80. Maimaris C, Barnes MR, Allen MJ. Whiplash injuries of the neck: A retrospective study. Injury. 1988; 19: 393–396.
81. Mayou R, Bryant B, Duthie R. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents. BMJ. 1993; 307: 647–651.
82. McKinney LA. Early mobilization and outcome in acute sprains of the neck. BMJ. 1989; 299: 1006–1008.
83. Muddu BN, Umaar R, Kim WY, et al. Whiplash injury of the shoulder: is it a distinct clinical entity? Acta Orthop Belg. 2005; 7l: 385–387.
84. Murray PA, Pitcher M, Galasko CSB. The cost of long term disability from road traffic accidents: four year study: final report. Berkshire, Transport Research Laboratory. Project report 45, HMSO. 1993: 1–58.
85. Newman PK. Whiplash injury. BMJ. 1990; 301: 395–396.
86. Norris SH, Watt I. The prognoses of neck injuries resulting from rear-end vehicle collisions. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983; 65: 608–611.
87. Nuckley DJ, Konodi MA, Raynak GC, et al. Neural space integrity of the lower cervical spine: effect of normal range of motions. Spine. 2002; 27: 587–595.
88. Obelieniene D, Schrader H, Bovim G, et al. Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999; 66: 279–283.
89. Osti OL, Gun RT, Abraham G, et al. Potential risk factors for prolonged recovery following whiplash injury. Eur Spine J. 2005; 14: 90–94.
90. Parmar HV, Raymakers R. Neck injuries from rear impact road traffic accidents: prognosis in persons seeking compensation. Injury. 1993; 24: 75–78.
91. Pennie BH, Agambar LJ. Whiplash injuries: a trial of early management. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990; 72: 277–279.
92. Pettersson K, Hildingsson C, Toolanen G, et al. MRI and neurology in acute whiplash trauma. No correlation in prospective examination of 39 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1994; 65: 525–528.
93. Pettersson K, Karrholm J, Toolanen G, et al. Decreased width of the spinal canal in patients with chronic symptoms after whiplash injury. Spine. 1995; 20: 1664–1667.
94. Pettersson K, Toolanen G. High-dose methylprednisolone prevents extensive sick leave after whiplash injury. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Spine. 1998; 23: 984–989.
95. Provinciali L, Baroni M, Ulluminati L, et al. Multimodal treatment to prevent the late whiplash syndrome. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1996; 28: 105–111.
96. Prushansky T, Pevzner E, Gordon C, et al. Cervical radiofrequency neurotomy in patients with chronic whiplash: a study of multiple outcome measures. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006; 4: 365–373.
97. Radanov BP, Di Stefano G, Schnidrig A, et al. Role of psychosocial stress in recovery from common whiplash. Lancet. 1991; 338: 712–715.
98. Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, De Stefano G, et al. Relationship between early somatic, radiological, cognitive and psychosocial findings and outcome during a one-year follow-up in 117 patients suffering from common whiplash. Br J Rheumatol. 1994; 33: 442–448.
99. Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, Di Stefano G, et al. Factors influencing recovery from headache after common whiplash. BMJ. 1993; 307: 652–655.
100. Radanov BP, Sturzenegger M, Di Stefano G. Longterm outcome after whiplash injury. A 2-year followup considering features of injury mechanism and somatic, radiologic and psychosocial flinging. Medicine (Baltimore). 1995; 74: 281–297.
101. Rebbeck T, Sindhusake D, Cameron ID, et al. A prospective cohort study of health outcomes following whiplash associated disorders in an Australian population. Inj Prev. 2006; 12: 93–98.
102. Revel M, Minguet M, Gregoy P, et al. Changes in cervicocephalic kinesthesia after a proprioceptive rehabilitation program in patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994; 75: 895–899.
103. Robinson DD, Cassar-Pullicino VN. Acute neck sprain after road traffic accident: a long-term clinical and radiological review. Injury. 1993; 24: 79–82.
104. Rodriquez AA, Barr KP, Burns SP. Whiplash: pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Muscle Nerve. 2004; 29: 768–781.
105. Rosenfeld M, Gunnarsson R, Borenstein P. Early intervention in whiplash- associated disorders: a comparison of two treatment protocols. Spine. 2000; 25: 1782–1787.
106. Rosenfeld M, Seferiadis A, Carlsson J, et al. Active intervention in patients with whiplash-associated disorder improves long-term prognosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Spine. 2003; 28: 2491–2498.
107. Ryan GA, Taylor GW, Moore VM, et al. Neck sprain in car occupants. The influence of crash-related factors on initial severity. Med J Aust. 1993; 159: 651–656.
108. Schnabel M, Ferrari R, Vassiliou T, et al. Randomised, controlled outcome study of active mobilisation compared with collar therapy for whiplash injury. Emerg Med J. 2004; 21: 306–310.
109. Schofferman J, Bogduk N, Slosar P. Chronic whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders: an evidencebased approach. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007; 15: 596–606.
110. Scholten-Peeters GG, Neeleman-van der Steen CW, van der Windt DA, et al. Education by general practitioners or education and exercises by physiotherapists for patients with whiplash-associated disorders? A randomized clinical trial. Spine. 2006; 31: 723–731.
111. Schrader H, Obelieniene D, Bovim G, et al. Natural evolution of late whiplash syndrome outside the medicolegal context. Lancet. 1996; 347: 1207–1211.
112. Schwartzman RJ. Brachial plexus traction injuries: quantification of sensory abnormalities. Hand Clin. 1991; (7): 547–556.
113. Seferiadis A, Rosenfeld M, Gunnarsson R. A review of treatment interventions in whiplash-associated disorders. Eur Spine J. 2004; 13: 387–397.
114. SF-36 Health Survey. Scoring Manual for English Language Adaptations: Australia/New Zealand, Canada, United Kingdom. Boston, MA, 1994.
115. Spitzer WO, Skovron ML, Salmi LR, et al. Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash- Associated Disorders: redefining «whiplash» and its management. Spine. 1995; 20: 1S–73S.
116. Squires B, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. Soft-tissue injuries of the cervical spine. 15-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996; 78: 955–957.
117. Sterner Y, Toolanen G, Gerdie B, et al. The incidence of whiplash trauma and the effects of different factors on recovery. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2003; 16: 195–199.
118. Stovner LJ. The nosologic status of the whiplash syndrome: a critical review based on a methodological approach. Spine. 1996; 21: 2735–2746.
119. Suissa S. Risk factors of poor prognosis after whiplash injury. Pain Res Manag. 2003; 8: 69–75.
120. Turner MA, Taylor PJ, Neal LA. Physical and psychiatric predictors of late whiplash syndrome. Injury. 2003; 34: 434–437.
121. Van der Heijden GJ, Beurskens AJ, Koes BW, et al. The efficacy of traction for back and neck pain: a systematic, blinded review of randomized clinical trial methods. Phys Ther. 1995; 75: 93–104.
122. Vendrig AA, van Akkerveeken PF, McWhorter KR. Results of a multimodal treatment program for patients with chronic symptoms after a whiplash injury of the neck. Spine. 2000;25: 238–244.
123. Verhagen AP, Scholten-Peeters GG, de Bie RA, et al. Conservative treatments for whiplash. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004; (1): CD003338.
124. Vernon HT, Humphreys BK, Hagino CA. A systematic review of conservative treatments for acute neck pain not due to whiplash. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005; 28: 443–448.
125. Waling K, Sundelin G, Ahlgren C, et al. Perceived pain before and after three exercise programs - a controlled clinical trial of women with work-related trapezius myalgia. Pain. 2000; 85: 201–207.
126. Wallis BJ, Lord SM, Bogduk N. Resolution of psychological distress of whiplash patients following treatment by radiofrequency neurotomy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 1997; 73: 15–22.
127. Walton DM, Pretty J, MacDermid JC, et al. Risk factors for persistent problems following whiplash injury: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009; 39: 334–350.
128. White AR, Ernst E. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for neck pain. Rheumatology. 1999; 38: 143–147.
129. White K, Hudgins TH, Alleva JT. Cervical facet mediated pain. Dis Mon. 2009; 55: 729–736.
130. Wickstrom JK, Martinez JL, Rodriguez R, et al. Hyperextension and hyperflexion injuries to the head and neck of primates. In: Gurdjian ES, Thomas LM (eds.). Neckache and Backache. Springfield, IL, 1970: 108–119.
131. Woodring JH, Goldstein SJ. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982; 139: 341–344.
132. Yadla S, Ratliff JK, Harrop JS. Whiplash: diagnosis, treatment, and associated injuries. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008; 1: 65–68.
133. Ylinen J, Takala EP, Nykanen M, et al. Active neck muscle training in the treatment of chronic neck pain in women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003; 289: 2509–2516.
Для цитирования: Ардашев И.П., Ардашева Е.И., Гришанов А.А., Веретельникова И.Ю., Шпаковский М.С., Петрова О.И. ХЛЫСТОВЫЕ ПОВРЕЖДЕНИЯ ШЕЙНОГО ОТДЕЛА ПОЗВОНОЧНИКА. "Хирургия позвоночника". 2012;(4):8-18. https://doi.org/10.14531/ss2012.4.8-18
For citation: Ardashev I.P., Ardasheva E.I., Grishanov A.A., Veretelnikova I.Y., Shpakovsky M.S., Petrova O.I. WHIPLASH INJURIES TO THE CERVICAL SPINE. Hirurgiâ pozvonočnika (Spine Surgery). 2012;(4):8-18. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.14531/ss2012.4.8-18
- Обратные ссылки не определены.
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.